Kankurang initiation rite teaches boys discipline and respect in Gambia

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Kankurang initiation rite teaches boys discipline and respect in Gambia
Kankurang initiation rite teaches boys discipline and respect in Gambia

Africa-Press – Gambia. Sharp sounds of clanking machetes cut the air as a warning that the Kankurang is coming. Fearful children nearby run inside their homes as the scary figure approaches, grunting. Others, more curious, risk a closer look at the man dressed to represent the spiritual figure.

The Kankurang mask is made of bark while the body is covered in leaves and red fibre. The traditional Kankurang wears a mask made of bark and his body is covered in leaves and red fibres from the faara tree. Other Kangkurangs with him wear colourful outfits with masks of cowrie shells.

The Kankurangs are followed by a small procession of teenagers and young men who are accompanying four young boys nearing the end of a month-long initiation rite, which is practised by the Mandinka ethnic groups in Gambia and neighbouring Senegal.

The men dressed as Kankurang dance during the Mandinka ritual. Despite his fearsome appearance, the Kankurang symbolises the spirit that provides order and justice and is considered a protector against evil.

He appears at ceremonies where circumcised boys are taught cultural practices, including discipline and respect.

 At the end of their month-long initiation, young boys dance wearing collars made of candies and money

“This is the place where we trained [the boys] how to respect people and how to respect elders and so on,” said Mamadou Jallow, 50, who leads the ceremony and looked after the boys during the four-week initiation period.

He explained that the Kankurang is a spirit and humans don’t have his power, but during the ceremonies some men dress like the Kankurang to drive away evil from the boys.

UNESCO recognised the initiation rite in 2005, proclaiming it a cultural heritage

“Evils. They are afraid of it. So maybe when we put [a man representing a Kankurang] out, they will think it’s a real one. They will be afraid,” he said.

The Kankurang rite was recognised in 2005 by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), which proclaimed it a cultural heritage.

Over the years since, the Kankurang tradition has spread to other groups in the region — including Wolof, Fula and others — but it is at risk of disappearing because of land development.

Ceremonial leaders are fighting to keep such traditional practices alive in the face of urbanisation.

“Their traditional practice is in retreat because of the rapid urbanisation of most of Senegal and Gambia and the decreasing extent of sacred forests, which are transformed into cultivated land,” according to the UNESCO website.

“This is the culture we have. And me, I’ll always work for the culture to survive,” Mr Jallow said. “As far as I’m alive, I will never leave my culture.”

Children run to their homes as the Kankurang approaches. The night before the initiation rite ends, musicians play traditional drums in the compound where the boys have stayed.

Families get a glimpse of the boys, wearing white hoods as they sing songs they’ve learned. The rite ends with a day of celebration in which families, friends and neighbours gather for the presentation of the newly initiated boys.

The Kankurang is considered a protector against evil. Wearing collars made of candies and money bills, each boy dances in front of the crowd.

Relatives and neighbours put small amounts of money in a bucket as a sign of gratitude, to be shared with those who took care of them during their coming-of-age. With joyful music and dance, their community welcomes the boys as men who will carry on their traditions.

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