In Nigeria, the criteria is “declare/Swear an oath” in Ghana it is “owe allegiance” …Our standard is higher and is intrinsically linked to your nationality be it ethnically or to the State.
Many of us belong to a family/ tribe/ethnic group or a family. In Citizenship and Nationality law, an ethnic group also qualifies as a Nation.
As a member of a family/tribe/ethnic group you owe allegiance to your unit be it your family, tribesmen and or Chieftain. There are no ifs and no but…. It is tied to your bloodline that is who you are. Such allegiance is automatic.
On a national level i.e. State-level, you acquire citizenship via Jus Solis (right of the soil), Juris Sanguinis (By Blood) or naturalisation.
Ghana goes by Jus Sanguinis…. So, your bloodline determines whether you are Ghanaian or not. The USA for instance goes by Jus Solis, once you are born in America you are American (irrespective of who your parents are)