Nobel Prize in Physics honors work on quantum mechanics

Nobel Prize in Physics honors work on quantum mechanics
Nobel Prize in Physics honors work on quantum mechanics

Africa-Press – Eswatini. The 2022 Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded to Alain Asqect, John F. Clauser and Anton Zeilinger for their work in quantum mechanics, the Swedish Academy announced thuseday.

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the 2022 Nobel Prize in Physics to Alain Aspect, John F. Clauser and Anton Zeilinger”, it was informed thuseday.

Frenchman Alain Aspect, American John Clauser and Austrian Anton Zeilinger were distinguished for their discoveries on the “power of quantum mechanics”, announced the secretary general of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm.

The Nobel jury said that the three researchers, pioneers in the study of the revolutionary mechanisms of quantum physics, were distinguished for their pioneering work on “quantum entanglement”, a state of matter in which two particles are perfectly correlated, regardless of the distance between them.

“Quantum information science is a vibrant and rapidly developing field,” said Eva Olson, a member of the Nobel committee, explaining that it “has broad and potential implications in areas such as secure transfer of information (data encryption), quantum computing and detection technology”.

Eva Olson said that while physicists often tackle problems that seem at first glance to be far removed from everyday concerns – tiny particles and the vast mysteries of space and time – their research provides the foundation for many practical applications of science. science.

This complex and sometimes logic-defying mechanics, the study of which has now been awarded, was predicted by quantum theory, but not even Albert Einstein believed it, in the existence of two particles joined at the beginning, like twins, that can keep the mark of their past common and have a similar and coordinated behavior at a distance.

Affiliated with the French University of Paris-Saclay, Alain Aspect is 75 years old, while John Clauser is 79 years old and Anton Zeilinger from the University of Vienna is 77 years old.

According to the Academy, the laureates “performed innovative experiments using entangled quantum states, where two particles behave as a single unit, even when they are separated. The results have paved the way for new technologies based on quantum information.”

Anton Zeilinger’s research group “demonstrated a phenomenon called quantum teleportation, which makes it possible to move a quantum state from one particle to another at a distance.”

In turn, Alain Aspect “developed a setup to close an important gap. He was able to change measurement settings after an entangled pair had left its source, so the setting that existed when they were issued could not affect the result.” .

Already John Clauser “built a device that emitted two entangled photons at a time, each of them towards a filter that tested its polarization. The result was a clear violation of a Bell inequality and agreed with the predictions of quantum mechanics”. .

Last year, the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to three scientists – Syukuro Manabe, Klaus Hasselmann and Giorgio Parisi – whose work helped explain and predict complex forces of nature, contributing to the understanding of climate change.

The Medicine prize started, on Monday, a week of Nobel Prize announcements, followed, yesterday, by the Physics prize, with Chemistry today and Literature tomorrow. The 2022 Nobel Peace Prize will be announced on Friday and the economics prize on the 10th of this month.

The Nobel Prizes were born from the desire of the Swedish scientist and industrialist Alfred Nobel (1833-1896) to bequeath a large part of his fortune to people who work for “a better world”. the amounts allocated, which currently amount to SEK ten million (more than EUR 953,000).

Profile of the distinguished

1- Alain Aspect

He is a French physicist known as the first to conduct conclusive experimental tests on the EPR paradox.

Born on June 15, 1947, in Agen, France, he published books such as “Introduction to quantum optics: from the semi-classical approach to quantized light”, “Introduction to lasers and quantum optics in physics” and ” Degree in physics: lasers and Atoms, Quantum Optics: Knowledge Test Texts Offered in Previous Years”, co-authored with Gilbert Grynberg.

He has already been distinguished with the Holweck (1991) and Wolf Prizes for Physics (2010).

2- Anton Zeilinger

He is an Austrian quantum physicist. He is a professor of physics at the University of Vienna, and was a lecturer at the University of Innsbruck. He is also director of the Vienna branch of the Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Sciences.

Born in Ried im Innkreis, Austria, Zeilinger was born on May 20, 1945 (age 77). He graduated from the University of Vienna (1971) and was supervised by Helmut Rauch, an Austrian nuclear physicist, trained at the Technical University of Vienna (1966).

In addition to the Nobel Prize in Physics, Anton Zeilinger had already been distinguished with the Klopsteg Memorial Prize (2004), Wolf Prize in Physics (2010) and the Isaac Newton Medal of the Institute of Physics (2007).

3- John Clauser

He is an American theoretical and experimental physicist known for his contributions to the foundations of quantum mechanics, in particular the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality.

Born in Pasadena, California (USA), Clauser graduated from the California Institute of Technology and Columbia University. In 2010, he was awarded the Wolf Prize for Physics.

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